Monday, May 25, 2020

Discuss How Changes on Aggregate Demand Influence Price...

Diana Gaita Economics FB1 Discuss how changes on aggregate demand influence price levels, output levels and employment. The meaning of â€Å"aggregate† is added together. All of the elements introduced in microeconomics are totaled in macroeconomics. Aggregate demand and supply analysis brings together the amount that consumers wish to consume and firms wish to produce at any price levels. Aggregate demand (AD) is the total demand for final goods and services in the economy (Y) at a given time and price level. Also it is the amount of goods and services that will be purchased at all possible price levels in the economy. This is called the demand for the Gross Domestic Product of a country when inventory levels are static. The†¦show more content†¦Confidence in future sales patterns and government incentive and regulations will also affect the investment levels. Another injection in the economy is the multiplier effect of the investment. In the economy, the money invested today will have a greater impact such as increasing the levels of output in the future. This is because investment rises the capital stock. With an evolution in technology, the machineries help production become faster and cheaper, thus contributing greatly to increasing the output in long-term. * The Price Level and Net Exports: The Exchange-Rate Effect Exports represent an injection into the circular flow of income, in that the money paid for goods and services sold abroad enters the domestic flow of income. Imports mean that there is an outflow of money, and exports minus imports gives the total movement of funds known as net exports. There are a number of reasons why the value of net exports might change. If the exchange rate increases in value against other currencies, imports become cheaper and exports more expensive on world markets. Over time, people respond to these relative price movements and the demand for exports falls and the demand for imports rises. A stronger currency will worsen net exports, whereas a weaker currency will improve the figure. Also, for example if a fall in the UK price level causes UK interest rates to fall, the real exchange rateShow MoreRelatedDifference Between Fiscal And Monetary Policy Essay1345 Words   |  6 PagesU.S. economy is forever changing due to various factors. Some of these econom ic policies are also developed due to various factors or events that may have occurred in the United States. This paper will discuss some policies that stimulate the economy, their relation to aggregate supply and demand, and the effectiveness of stimulation these policies will have on the economy. The article â€Å"What is the difference between fiscal and monetary policy?† written by Dr. Econ and posted on the Federal ReserveRead MoreThe Federal Reserve Is The Central Banking Institution Of The United States Of America1725 Words   |  7 Pagesinstability, and prevent crises in the American economy. In general, the Federal Reserve accomplishes these goals by using their influence to maximize national employment, control inflation and interest rates, and increase national GDP. Before we discuss the Fed in any further depth, we will first review some of these basic economic concepts that are essential for understanding how it operates. GDP, or gross domestic product, is the sum total value of all goods and services produced by a country withinRead MoreSupply and Demand Essay1417 Words   |  6 PagesTeam C Aggregate Demand and Supply Models OPTION 2: ECONOMIC CRITIQUE ECO/372 October 1, 2012 Option 2: Economic Critique The aggregate demand and supply model (AS-AD Model) is an economic model that has the capabilities to account for business cycles of expansion and recession, and helps to model macroeconomic policy. Aggregate demand is the total demand of goods and services for a specific period of time. Aggregate supply is the total supply of goods andRead MoreNotes On The Cash Rate1232 Words   |  5 PagesQ1. Explain what the cash rate is in simple terms. How do these rates influence the levels of other interest rates in the economy? The cash rate is a special benchmark interest rate set by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) based on its inflation target that is charged on overnight loans to commercial banks (Lowe, 2009). Because the amount of money a bank has fluctuates daily based on its lending and borrowing activities, the central bank always lends money overnight to banks that experience a shortageRead MoreWhat Role Did The Setting Of Monetary Policy Play On Housing Market Developments?1743 Words   |  7 Pagesexplain the rise in residential investments or house prices. However some increase in housing markets can attest to lower interest rates and favourable monetary policies that followed after the 2011 recession, which was actually a small factor, As proposed traditional macroeconomic models, even if policy was looser than some measures suggest, these deviations were unlikely to have granted or generated the outsized reponses of house prices and resedential investemnet that happened Our empirical Read MoreKeynes and the Classical Economists6500 Words   |  26 PagesKeynes and the Classical Economists: The Early Debate on Policy Activism LEAR N I NG OBJ ECTIVE S 1. Discuss why the classical economists believed that a market economy would automatically tend toward full employment. 2. Explain why Keynes rejected the views of the classical economists. 3. Compare the views of Keynes and the classical economists with regard to the proper role of government. s you discovered in Chapter 10, unemployment and inflation impose costs on our society. Today, many AmericansRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of The European Union1123 Words   |  5 PagesQuestions: 1. Discuss in general the advantages and disadvantages of regional †¨ trading blocs such as the EU. Discuss the benefits that UB may now enjoy after acquiring a stake in the Nigerian firm, AP. United Biscuits (UB) manufactures its products in factories throughout England, Ireland, Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. The advantages and disadvantages of regional trading blocs such as the European Union (EU), since its creation with the Treaties of Rome in 1957, the European Union has shownRead MoreExamining the Implications for an Economy of a Rising Exchange Rate2845 Words   |  12 Pagesrelative price fluctuations, there is likely to be an increase in domestic spending on imports, and decreased demand for exports in foreign countries. In order to explore rising exchange rate effects on economy we need to understand essential macroeconomics like Aggregate Supply (AS) and Aggregate Demand (AD). Economics- S. Nordhaus- 16th ed. – 1998 – McGraw-hill- US - p388 The central concepts for understanding the determination of national output and the price level are aggregate supplyRead MoreThe Inflation Definition And Influences Essay1649 Words   |  7 PagesThe inflation definition and influences Inflation is general defined as the devaluation of the currency with the comprehensive and continued rising price level, which means the purchase of money is persistent declining (James and Charles 1975). And this is generally considered as the result of the amount of money in circulation more than the actual needs of the economy. It will directly leads to the devaluation of paper money. If the income of residents do not change, then the living standard ofRead MoreMacroeconomic - Government Policies in Reducing Inflation and Unemployment1493 Words   |  6 PagesMACRO-ECONOMIC | Discuss the role of government policy in reducing unemployment and inflation. In your discussion make use of the diagrammatic representation of the macroeconomy developed in lectures in Term 2 | Unemployment and inflation are factors that have negative effects on the performance of the economy as a whole. Therefore, policies to achieve low and stable price inï ¬â€šation, a high and stable level of employment are big macroeconomics issues of our time. This essay focuses on discussing

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Comparision of Judaism and Zoroastrianism Essay - 668 Words

Comparision of Judaism and Zoroastrianism Religion has been a major focal point in any society and in any culture. Starting from the first civilizations in Sumer and Ur to the vast metropolitans of today like New York and London, religion has been around and played a key part in lives of people. Possibly two of the oldest religions in the world, Judaism and Zoroastrinism share distinct qualities that are still alive today. Both religions are practiced but Zoroastrianism is not as popular as it once was. Meanwhile, Judaism is one of the world’s largest religions. These two religions are similar in the way that they are designed and practiced throughout history. Judaism originated in the Middle East. Judaism calls that all†¦show more content†¦Women were treated unfair and were considered impure because they gave childbirth and went through the menstruation cycle. The Jewish religion has many key components, which were derived from other religions such as Zoroastrianism. The prophet Zoroaster founded Zoroastrianism in Persia. The doctrines preached by Zoroaster are preserved in his metrical Gathas (psalms), which form part of the sacred scripture known as the Avesta. Zoroastrianism is one of the first monotheistic beliefs in the world. The beliefs are outlined in the Gathas. The basic tenets of the Gathas consist of a worship of Ahura Mazda and an ethical dualism opposing Truth and Lie, which permeate the entire universe. Upon death in Zoroastrianism a person’s soul will be judged at the Bridge of Discrimination; the follower of Truth will cross and be led into paradise, and the adherents of Lie will fall into hell. Zoroastrianists believe that evil will be wiped off the face of the Earth and will be burnt. The Gathas and the Seven Chapters form part of the larger work, the Yasna. In the Yasna there are hymns that praise specific Gods, and the code of law that they are to follow. Both Judaism and Zoroastrinism share many characteristics in common. The most obv ious and probably one of the most important is the fact that both religions are monotheistic. In ancient times many civilizations were polytheistic. These two religions emerged as the first two monotheistic belief

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Evasive Sonnet CXVI (116) Essay - 2568 Words

In my survey of Shakespeares Sonnets, I have found it difficult to sincerely regard any single sonnet as inferior. However, many of the themes could be regarded as rather trite. For example sonnet XCVII main idea is that with my love away I feel incomplete, sonnet XXIX says that only your love remembered makes life bearable, while sonnet XXXVIII makes the beloved the sole inspiration in the poets life. These themes recycled in love songs and Hallmark cards, hardly original now, would hardly have been any newer in Elizabethan England. However the hackneyed themes of these sonnets is in a sense the source of their essence. These emotions, oftentimes difficult to adequately articulate, are shared by all that have loved, been†¦show more content†¦As quickly as the Shakespearean narrator shifts in stance, not only from quatrain to quatrain but from line to line, it becomes quite easy to fall into the hole of misinterpretation. And thus, some popular sonnets are popular be cause of their misinterpretation. Shakespeares speeds ahead in his poetry while readers are left behind, totally oblivious, but still of the mind that they are following close behind. Sonnet CXVI is one of these evasive sonnets. It is indeed elusive and if we are lucky enough to catch hold of it, we may find that we do not in fact possess it entirely. Most interpretations of Sonnet CXVI focus on the constancy of love, which I concede, is indeed an attribute of the sonnet, but is hardly its main point. Wedged between sonnets that begin Those lines that I before have writ do lie (CXV) and Accuse me thus, that I have scanted all (CXVII) one has to reconsider the facile premise that this poem is only about love in its highest, ideal form. In the present paper, I will focus on sonnet CXVI, but not in conjunction to its surrounding sonnets. Instead I will try to read the sonnet without any inclinations to possessing its meaning and let the sonnet speak for itself. But first let us look at the poem. Below is a copy of a sonnet CXVI: Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Communication free essay sample

His vision to give young, fashion forward men and women a unique way to express their individuality through style resulted in millions of customers worldwide and propelled his designs to the forefront of the fashion industry. It all started in 1990, with a mere $1,100 in his bank account, Madden started crafting shoe designs from his Queens-based factory and the  Steve Madden  brand was born. With a lot of courage, years of experience in the footwear industry, and unique creative designs,  Steve Madden  formed his own successful enterprise. A year later, Madden introduced a redefined version of platform shoes, resulting in one of the most spectacular success stories in the early 1990s. Inspired by his favorite rock and roll stars of the 1970s, the thick, chunky heel became  Steve Maddens  signature and a phenomenon in womens shoes. Maddens footwear vision is continuously evolving. Steve once said, What inspires me is what I see people wearing on the streets of the world from New York to London and beyond. We also will have to identify the training and uptake strategies and IT goals and strategies. Recommendations In recommendation I will suggest that what other things company need and to improve or change for more good communications. Findings ,Conclusion And Recommendations Topic:1 Organisational Culture FINDINGS The Caltex is a fuel company as we know there are three to four hundred branches of Caltex Company in Newzealand. And this branch a part of a Caltex company as every company and organisation has dream and goal same like this Caltex company have their own goals and policies. Mr Pawan khanna who is the manager of this branch and he takes the responsibility to run this organisation . Caltex is fuel company and other side every Caltex do have convenience store. Moreover in the case of goals the company always try to accomplish the goal in market that company make high standard and good reputation in market and also try to sell better product and service to their customer for getting satisfaction and expectation of customers. Not only manager the every staff of company try to add the good values in company from which company can make good profit. There are 8 staff members are working in this organisation they all are responsible the main thing is this staff member are different countries like shrilanka, Fiji and India and they belongs to different culture but they all are friendly and polite each other they work together in organisation and they know the value of customer and how to respect to their customer because customer is precious for an any organisation so staff member have to show their soft nature to them. The owner of company has made some rule and regulation that is not give chance to any ethics between staff because all staff speaks only one language the wear same dress in workplace. The all staff of company knows very well about treaty Waitangi and whenever they serve the customer they give full respects to them mostly for Maori people whenever any Maori customer come in this organisation the staff members try to give them proper service with good manner that they can feel better and also they give discount on some things. Conclusion In conclusion it can be seen that the company main purpose is to fulfil the desire of their customer by providing them better service and selling good product so all staff are responsible for. Another thing is that all staff are polite and and friendly each other as well with customer they know the values and goals of company. And they also have the knowledge of ethics and culture or treaty Waitangi. The owner of company has made some rules for staff however they belongs different countries instead of this they have good communication with each other at workplace. Recommendations In recomdation I will like to say that in Caltex organisation director should give rewards and opportunity to his staff that they can motivated and also he should celebrate the festivals of other culture people together because of this they can know each other about culture and know about different languages. Topic:2 Organisation structure and communication channels In Caltex organisation structure is small there are 8 members are working like Director, Manager Supervisor and employees. The manager who is the first person of organisation who is responsible and handle to the staff even staff also responsible for their job but they all are work under the manager he makes the roster and make shifts according to the time for staff. Director of company has divided work into staff there are three departments in this organisation like information department, human resources department and operational department and these departments are handle by manager and supervisor or these group has different priorities and it works in different ways. All staff understand their nature and significance of their roles and manager also has given freedom to his staff to take some action according to their style because at the time any problems come the employees do not need to talk over and over to manager they can take action on the sport but in critical problem they need to get advice of manager then manager also talk to his owner. For more information and any new plans the director of organisation hire the meeting to his staff where he gives chance to every one to speak and put their views and ideas. Communication plays a key role in the success of any workplace program or policy in Caltex the all staff have to work inside of organisation whenever they need of any communication they can communicate with face to face if sometimes they do need to contact outside so they use mail service. In Caltex in the case of communication channel they have to talk each other face to face as in Caltex every staff member has to give report of whole day so they will send it manager and it goes to director so in this way staff plays the internal communication channel. In Caltex organisation they often use external communication channel as the company have some retailers and member so company has to contact with them so company need to contact them with external communication like price of products, price of fuels etc. Formal communication network very important for an company because in which company member makes plans. Most of time the director of company hire the meeting between staff members where they all discuss about new future plans where leader makes the decision according to the company. The Caltex also has some informal network with other fuel companies some time director has to attend meeting with other companies where companies hire the meetings together and they discussed the prices of fuel and G. S. T taxes . Conclusion In conclusion we can say the all staff of Caltex staff working in level of hierarchy and also there are network of communications and communication channel which work in company internal side and external side of company. On the other side the company structure is small and the work has divided in departments so it reduces the pressure of manager and they all are responsible. Recomdation In my opinion as company has different department but it is handle by manger according to me director of company should give some responsibility to other members of staff to handle some departments because of this manager can do other activities of company. Topic:3 Communication Technologies and tools Findings Caltex is a fuel company it open 24 hours and in the case of technology they use different types of technology like in fuel pumps whenever any customer come for getting fuel for their vehicle so they don’t need to come inside the store because Caltex organisation use such technology from which customer automatically get fuel and sometime if customer need to talk with staff member so they can talk with mike because Caltex has speakers and mikes technology from which they can communicate each other and also credit card service available if any one pay with credit card it all save the time of customer. Moreover in the case of advertisement and promotion for the the Caltex organisation they take the help of internet technology like there are some websites where we can registered and these websites help us to promotion and publicity for example the Caltex organisation update all the information on Caltex. co. nz in this web site every can get information about Caltex. On the other side the Caltex organisation has three departments they all are also use technology tools for run the business. Human resources management-This department process of an organisation or human resources for the training and selection of employees. In this Caltex organisation take online test of employees even they have to give trial in company for getting jobs. Informational department- Information management is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audience. In this department Caltex company have to gain lot of information from external side so they use fax and mail technology for it. Operational department-The department of operational management covers productions management, distribution product and process development in general as well as information and communication in modern industrial and service enterprises. In case of service and product these days customer demand for high technology so Caltex organisation has some good product For Example techron, the special ingredient in all Caltex petrol, makes them unbeatable at keeping vital engine parts clean, helping your car perform at its best. Lower quality fuels can leave harmful deposits in your cars engine. As these deposits accumulate over time, your car may begin to hesitate and stumble during acceleration, knock or lose power. Caltex fuels with the techron additive are unbeatable at cleaning up and avoiding deposits. Theres no better way for you to protect and maintain your engines performance than by using Caltex with techron. In the case communication technology all staff use fax and telephones technology and all staff have cell phons that they can make contact with manager any time so sometime in urgent manager also contact with his staff for example if manager have to go outside of work he can be late and delay so manager has to give message and call to their employees. Conclusion In conclusion it can be seen that all Caltex company has established and dependent on technology there are some departments in organisation which getting profit of technology in different way. Manager of company has main responsibility to focus on this technology and tools and he has given responsibility to his staff to operate this technology. Recommendation As per my point of view I think company should make technology department in business which can help to get more advancement in technology and it will give better service to customer because this department motivate to other department by technology tools .

Monday, April 6, 2020

Greek Philosopher Socrates

It is a reality that societies tend to have individuals who question the way things are done. These individuals also known as philosophers feel that their responsibility is to question why things are the way they are. These philosophers usually work in places where they were born. This article will focus on one Greek philosopher who was recognized as Socrates.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Greek Philosopher Socrates specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the era of ancient Greece, approximately forty years before the commencement of the Peloponnesian battles, an infant by the name of Socrates was brought into the world. This child is said to have been born in Athens in 469 BCE to Sophroniscus and Phoenarete. He was notably intelligent at a very tender age. Before the wars emanated in the region, Socrates used to hang out with the unchanged intellectuals that Pericles did. This comprised of the sophist named Protag orist, the scientist Archelaus and Damon the musician. It is therefore clear that Socrates existed during the times of war. Socrates emerged from a well-off family. There are several instances of substantiation that have been elucidated to attest to this fact. One of them is that he served in three diverse occurrences during the Peloponnesian war. To begin with, Socrates was a hoplite fighter during warfare. This duty necessitated an individual to purchase his own equipment as well as body armor. Socrates served as a soldier at a place called Delium in 424 BCE as well as in Amphipolis, Potidoea in 432 BCE. He did not stay as a bachelor for long. He was married to Xanthippe who was known well in the region due to her irritability. Consequently, Socrates had a family of three boys who played a great role in promoting their fathers thinking after his demise. Socrates used to question each and every person within the society. His interrogations were extended to the streets. Socrates wou ld stroll along the streets where he would come across different people. In the process, he would challenge an individual who he met among others on the streets with questions that appeared quite uncomplicated. His seemingly easy questions would leave plenty of doubt in the intellect of the individual. This was how Socrates gained his superiority in being a philosopher. Socrates would ask his questions regardless of the individual’s age. Through Socrates interrogations and answers many people benefited by getting education. The method that Socrates used to educate people was referred to as Socratic dialect. Some people referred to this method as the Socratic Method. Surprisingly, Socrates neither wrote books nor papers regarding his philosophical sayings. Similar to lots of philosophers, Socrates was seeking for the meaning of living or rather life. Socrates philosophical sayings were based on his own beliefs. Socrates had a belief that each and every philosopher was seeking answers not only to life but also what happens when one passes away.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of Socrates efforts were concentrated on the search for questions rather than answers. Through his efforts and interrogations, people’s morals were highly criticized. However, Socrates did not provide the people with solutions to the questions that he posed to them. This made most people within the society dislike him. Socrates also got himself involved with two associates of an oligarchy of thirty individuals who played a greater role in conquering the democratic state of Athens. As mentioned earlier, Socrates had his own beliefs which he thought to be true. Basing on Socrates assumptions, democracy never existed. Due to his beliefs, Socrates received a lot of hostility as well as resentment from most people within his region. Most people really hated him. According to So crates, any given government ought to be ruled by knowledge. In his point of view, democracy should be done away with by the government while administering its rule. There are indications that Socrates was the first and foremost human being to come up with the idea of the soul. The idea of the soul is presently well built among members of each and every society in the present day. In line with this, Socrates revealed that â€Å"there is no truth except that there is no truth† and that â€Å"he does not know anything except that he does not know anything.† After coming up with this, Socrates was able to boost his level of understanding and thinking and was equated to the greatest thinkers of all time. Socrates spent the largest part of his life confidentially. He never took part in affairs of the public and never got involved in activities that were anticipated by the citizens of his country. Socrates never considered them as activities of great knowledge. As a philosop her, Socrates was not only an educator but also a father. He did this for a considerable duration in his life. His philosophical sayings educated several people. Being a teacher, some of the well known followers of Socrates were Plato, Aristotle and Xenophon. One of the eulogies of Socrates was written by Xenophon. Plato also wrote several critiques regarding Socrates with the inclusion of â€Å"Apology† that demonstrated Socrates radiant defense. He wrote with illustrations from key words in Socrates philosophical sayings, for instance â€Å"[Socrates] spent his life in search of such truth as was arrived at by logical reasoning, starting from a rational hypothesis.† The real philosophical acts of Socrates have been shown when Plato wrote what was said by Socrates during his defense i.e. â€Å"I have never been a teacher to any man, but if any one, whether young or old, wished to hear me speak while carrying out my mission, I never grudged him the opportunity†¦ And whether any of my hearers become better or worse, for that I cannot justly be made answerable†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Greek Philosopher Socrates specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Socrates was neither a product of the social order nor a modernizer. His way was known by many. He could stroll around the streets and then engage in a conversation with a person he came across. Without hesitation, Socrates would make sure that he interrogated the individual on his beliefs. Even though this seems to be a direct influence on people, Socrates is considered to have influenced most people’s way of life indirectly. Apparently, we are made to believe that new trends were obligatory when a person exhausted his chat with Socrates. However, Socrates never did trend setting save for that. In 399 BCE, Socrates was charged with transgression and corrupting the youth of Athens. Socrates was blamed by Meletus. During these times, the punishment for such crimes was death. The reason behind his alleged transgression was lack of recognition of the same gods as the state. Socrates was blamed for corrupting the Athenian youths. This was after the youths started questioning their parents’ beliefs. The youngsters also questioned the beliefs of some of the significant social elite in a scornful way. The entire matter appeared frivolous. In spite of Socrates outstanding defense, which was possibly misinterpreted by most of the 501 jury of the subordinate category of the Athenian general public, he was proved guilty by a margin of merely sixty people. Most people wanted him to be evicted from the city. However, this never happened. Personally, he requested to recompense a fine but his efforts were futile. A larger margin of individuals won the case. They proposed the death penalty on Socrates. He was to drink poison. The death sentence was later deferred. This was as a result of a r eligious festival that was to be performed. The festival was for the sacrifice of the seven young men and maidens towards the Minotaur in the maze inside the holy place on the isle of Crete. It was during this time that his friends proposed to organize a getaway for him. But Socrates refused to escape. He claimed that his escape would be contrary to all his teachings as well as the years he had lived. He took death as a light matter. He perceived death as at last getting to know all that happens after death which is considered as the ultimate quest of all philosophers. Plato denotes that Socrates said: â€Å"But now it is time for us to go away, I to die, and you to live. Which of us is going to a better fate is unknown to all save God.† Socrates was a great philosopher. The absence of his philosophical sayings would have resulted in the absence of philosophies from Aristotle and each and every successor of his teachings. The functioning of the world at present, particularly the western world would have been very different. This would have consequently reversed the configuration as well as the workings of the globe.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, Socrates was the greatest philosopher/ theorist in the world. He took the planet by storm. He left a lot of suspicion and doubt in the minds of the greatest leaders of the era and beyond. There is a well known painting that depicts Socrates death. Weeping friends surround him as he moves to drink the cup of poisonous hemlock. The holder of the cup who is a servant also weeps on seeing what he was doing. The fact remains that Socrates was, is and will always be missed. Socrates discovered the truth regarding prejudices that are pushed on us by our own insecurities. This essay on Greek Philosopher Socrates was written and submitted by user Marvin E. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Free Essays on Egocentrism In Children

LAB REPORT- EGOCENTRISM IN CHILDREN: ‘COPS & ROBBERS STUFF’ ABSTRACT This report sought to examine whether a change in the response required -given that the materials utilized remained constant- would effect the degree of egocentrism exhibited by children within, either the pre-operational (3-5 years old) or concrete (9-11 years old) phases of cognitive development. This experiment was designed to correct or reinforce Piaget’s theory of conservation of matter, and used a modified version of Hughes police and robbers task. This was achieved by changing the response required from a straightforward verbal response to a visual response in which cue cards were applied. It was able then to be contrasted with Piaget’s 3 mountains task. The results given by the 507 subjects (228 male and 279 female) showed on average that egocentrism became more evident, particularly in pre-operational age bracket when asked to view the object (robber) form an opposite perspective rather than a similar one. Despite this however the experiment dispeled Piagetâ₠¬â„¢s theory by suggesting that not all pre-operational children are egocentric. Throughout this century scientists have pondered on the egocentric tendencies of humans and have tried to pinpoint its prenuptial foundations by examining cognitive development in children. Donaldson (19) defines egocentrism as: â€Å"a self-centered viewpoint†(p.17) and suggests that this failure to realize the world form another stance leads to lack of knowledge. Although Piaget (1932) -the forefather of modern cognitive psychology- established a theory to explain this condition of egocentrism in children, the experimental data which he used to support this; namely the 3 mountains task, was somewhat flawed. This was because, it suggested that children participants aged between two and seven; which he categorized in a stage labeled the pre-operational stage, were egocentric because they fai... Free Essays on Egocentrism In Children Free Essays on Egocentrism In Children LAB REPORT- EGOCENTRISM IN CHILDREN: ‘COPS & ROBBERS STUFF’ ABSTRACT This report sought to examine whether a change in the response required -given that the materials utilized remained constant- would effect the degree of egocentrism exhibited by children within, either the pre-operational (3-5 years old) or concrete (9-11 years old) phases of cognitive development. This experiment was designed to correct or reinforce Piaget’s theory of conservation of matter, and used a modified version of Hughes police and robbers task. This was achieved by changing the response required from a straightforward verbal response to a visual response in which cue cards were applied. It was able then to be contrasted with Piaget’s 3 mountains task. The results given by the 507 subjects (228 male and 279 female) showed on average that egocentrism became more evident, particularly in pre-operational age bracket when asked to view the object (robber) form an opposite perspective rather than a similar one. Despite this however the experiment dispeled Piagetâ₠¬â„¢s theory by suggesting that not all pre-operational children are egocentric. Throughout this century scientists have pondered on the egocentric tendencies of humans and have tried to pinpoint its prenuptial foundations by examining cognitive development in children. Donaldson (19) defines egocentrism as: â€Å"a self-centered viewpoint†(p.17) and suggests that this failure to realize the world form another stance leads to lack of knowledge. Although Piaget (1932) -the forefather of modern cognitive psychology- established a theory to explain this condition of egocentrism in children, the experimental data which he used to support this; namely the 3 mountains task, was somewhat flawed. This was because, it suggested that children participants aged between two and seven; which he categorized in a stage labeled the pre-operational stage, were egocentric because they fai...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Neurocysticercosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Neurocysticercosis - Essay Example The pig is an intermediate host, which harbors the larvae after ingesting the ova, while the ultimate hosts are humans. (Dhawan, 2007) Neurocysticercosis is caused by the intake of food contaminated with the waste products of a T. solium tapeworm carrier. The adult T. solium inhabits itself in the small intestine of humans, where it attaches itself to the intestinal wall by its suckers and hooks. A few pregnant proglottids are detached from the distal end of the body of the worm every day and passed with the feces; every proglottid contains thousands of eggs, which are fully embryonated, and resistant to all sorts of harsh environments and infective. (Etiopathogenesis of Neurocysticercosis, 2002) If pig products infected with the larvae are ingested, the intestines are subject to a tapeworm infection; when these eggs are ingested and subjected to gastric acid found inside the human stomach, their protective capsule is dissolved and the eggs turn into larval cysts, called oncospheres. Oncospheres travel through the vascular system to the brain, muscle, eyes, and other organs and body parts. The ingested ova develop into larvae (cysticerci) and lodge in soft tissues, especially skin, muscle, and brain. Cysticerci are fluid-filled oval cysts, approximately 1-2 cm in diameter, with an internal scolex. Once in the brain, the larval cysts (cysticerci) initially generate a minimal immune response and may remain in the brain as functional cysts for years. A live cyst can remain in there undetected for as long as 5 years before dying or causing symptoms in the host and cause minor inflammation in the tissue around it. (Christopher M. DeGiorgio, 2004) Finally, Neurologic symptoms by the cyst arise when it dies and the human mounts an associated inflammatory response. (Dhawan, 2007) The symptoms include: Seizures, which are severe involuntary movements of the body, headaches, states of confusion, lack of attention with people around and other things in the surrounding, difficulty with balance, Hydrocephalus or the swelling of the brain in which the cerebral ventricle dilate and lastly, sudden death as a cause of heavy infections. The Stages There are basically four stages of cysts within the parenchyma of the brain: vesicular, colloidal, nodular/granular, and calcified granulomas. In the first stage, the viable cyst larva is known as a vesicular cyst and has a minimum amount of activity which is because of little or no host immune response. As time passes the cyst degenerates, fluid from the larval cyst leaks into the parenchyma, creating a noticeable immune response. An enhancing cyst, without a proper scolex, is called a colloidal cyst. During the colloidal this phase, the parasite begins to demonstrate degenerative changes, the vesicular fluid takes on a gelatinous colloidal form, and the wall thickens. The CT scan shows an annular enhancement bounded by perilesional edema. Performing an MRI, the capsule displays a higher signal than the surrounding brain. As the cyst deteriorates more, it forms a nodule. In the nodular phase, the vesicle usually decreases in size, and its contents turn semisolid, and are slowly repl aced by granulomatous tissue. After the parasite dies, a mineralization process takes place that ends up in a calcified nodule that inhibits